Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samma sambuddhassa
Honour to the Blessed One, the Exalted One, the fully and perfectly Enlightened One

There are five Niyaamas (cosmic laws or cosmic order or processes )

These five niyamas govern the universe for all time. They cannot be controlled by any power.

1. Citta Niyāma (The Psychical Order)

Order of mind or psychic law; e.g., processes of consciousness, constituents of consciousness, power of mind, thought-reading, and such other psychic phenomena, which are inexplicable to modern science. By the Relation of Contiguity, all classes of consciousness and their mental concomitants, which have just ceased, give way to all classes of consciousness and their mental concomitants to arise in the immediately succeeding instant.

2. Utu Niyāma (Physical Inorganic/Caloric/Climate order)

Seasonal phenomena of winds and rains, the unerring order of seasons, characteristic seasonal changes and events, causes of winds and rains, nature of heat, etc.

Buddhism do not deny man-made climate change. In fact, at the time of Buddha, monks used to cut trees. When some villagers complained to Buddha about the adverse effect (environmental damage) they were having when monks cut trees to build monastery, Buddha prohibited monks cutting down trees.


3. Bīja Niyāma (Order of Germs and Seeds/Physical Organic Order)

Rice produced from rice seed, sugary taste from sugar-cane or honey, and peculiar characteristics of certain fruits. From a mango seed a coconut tree will never grow.

The scientific theory of cells and genes and the physical similarity of twins may be ascribed to this order.


4. Kamma Niyāma (Order of Act and Result/Moral Order)

Wholesome and unwholesome acts produce corresponding good and bad results.

5. Dhamma Niyāma (The Natural Phenomenal Sequence/Order of the Norm)

The natural phenomena occurring at the birth of a Bodhisatta in his last birth. A Buddha can appear when human life span is between one hundred thousand and one hundred years and the trend is decreasing. Paccka Buddha cannot appear in a Kalpa where a Sammāsambuddha is enlightened.

Every Bodhisattva must go through ten perfections to attain Buddha hood and must have a partner. In the final life a Bodhisattva must merry and produce one son and renounce the world going for homelessness for at least six day before enlightenment.

Every Buddha's mother passes away one week after giving birth to the child who will become a Buddha and always reborn in Tavatimsa heaven. Every Buddha deliver Abhidhamma in Tavatimsa heaven to mother who passed away seven days after giving birth.

Every Buddha defeat devaputra Mara. Every Buddha has thirty two physical signs of a Great Man and eighty minor characteristics. (Lakkhaṇa Sutta) (DN 30). A Brahma (God) must request to a Buddha to teach the Dhamma (law) and establish the Sasana (dispensation). Buddha's right and left hand disciples pass away (attain Nibbana) before Buddha.

Gravitation and other similar laws of nature, the reason for being good, etc.

PAṬṬHĀNA Conditional Relations

The Buddha mentioned in the Paṭṭhāna altogether 24 conditions (paccaya) which relate cause and effect in various ways.

'Condition', is something on which something else, the so-called 'conditioned thing', is dependent, and without which the latter cannot be.


The 24 Conditions (paccaya)

1. Hetupaccayo - Root Condition

Greed (lobha), hatred (dosa), and ignorance (moha), generosity (alobha) , amity (adosa), and wisdom (amoha) - (Six Roots)

2. Ãrammanapaccayo - Object Condition

Objects are of six different kinds: visible object, audible object or sound, odorous object or smell, sapid object or taste, tangible object, and cognizable object.

3. Adhipatipaccayo - Predominance-condition

(1) Chanda (intention or desire-to-do)
(2) Viriya (energy/effort)
(3) Citta (mind or will) and
(4) Vimamsa (investigation or power of reasoning)
Whichever have reached the dominant stage, become lord or leader of their adjuncts. In other words, while any one of them attains predominance, the three others become followers.
Great accomplishments are made possible due to the arising of the above-mentioned four dominants or adhipatis.


4. Anantarapaccaya - Proximity Condition

Anantara is so-called because it causes such states of phenomena as are similar to its own to succeed immediately the following instant.

5. Samanantarapaccayo - Contiguity Condition

Samantara is to be understood in the sense 'thorough rapid action'. The various classes of consciousness are in a state of continual flux, i.e., in a continuous succession of changes.

By the Relation of Immediate Contiguity, the states of phenomena that succeed has similar states as present one and succeed in the immediately following instant. The succession is so quick that the preceding consciousness is hardly distinguishable from the succeeding consciousness.


6. Sahajātapaccayo - Conascence Condition

Here, co-existence means that when a phenomenon arises, it arises together with its effect; or, in other words, it also causes its effect to arise simultaneously. It is just like the lamp which, when lighted, causes light to appear simultaneously.

The four immaterial aggregates vedanā (feeling/sensation), saññā (perception), saṅkhāra (volitional activities), and viññāṇakkhandha (consciousness) are mutually related to one another by co-nascence condition.

The four great essentials (mahābhūta): paṭhavī, āpo, tejo, vāyo-dhātu (earth-, water-, fire- and air-element) are mutually related to one another by co-nascence condition.

At the moment of conception, mind paṭisandhi-citta + its cetasikas and matter 30 kamma-born matters, namely the three kammaja kalāpas: heartbase-decad, body- sensitivity-decad and sex-decad are mutually related to each other by co-nascence condition Consciousness and mental factors are related to mind-produced matter by co-nascence condition.

The great essentials are related to derived matter by co-nascence condition. Material phenomena are sometimes, at the moment of conception (okkantikkhaṇe) or rebirth (paṭisandhi), related to immaterial (i.e. mental) phenomena by conascence condition. Sometimes, during life-time (pavatti), they are not related by co-nascence condition


7. Aññamaññapaccayo - Mutuality Condition

Physical phenomena and mental phenomena are mutually supporting each other. In other words, there is a Relation of Reciprocity between the two.

The four immaterial (i.e. mental) aggregates are related to one another by mutuality condition. The four great essentials are related to one another by mutuality condition.

The four immaterial (i.e. mental) aggregates are related to one another by mutuality condition. The four great essentials are related to one another by mutuality condition.

At the time of conception, mind, paṭisandhi-citta with its cetasikas, and matter, first 30 kammaja rūpas: heartbase-decad, body- sensitivity-decad and sex-decad, are related to each other by mutuality condition.


8. Nissayapaccayo - Support Condition

The material base itself pre-exist and serves as a base. The ground must be ready for a tree to grow on it.

The tree depends on the ground for its existence. On the same principle, meritorious actions and demeritorious actions arise as resultants of previous actions, good or bad. Present actions arise dependending on past actions.


9. Upanissayapaccayo - Decisive support Condition

The presence of some potentiality that causes something to arise. Saddha or conviction in the Triple Gem and the potentiality of kamma is the sufficing condition for all forms of meritorious actions, such as observing the precepts, keeping oneself moral, cultivating the mind for calm, developing the mind for insight, and practicing mindfulness, all these actions leading to attainment of Magga Knowledge, special apperception (abinna), and dwelling in jhana,or sustained cessation (nirodha samapatti).

10. Purejātapaccayo - Prenanscence Condition

What has existed beforehand serves as a condition for the prosperity of what comes after. Sense-objects which exist or arise beforehand to cause good or bad consequence to those that come into contact with them.

11. Pacchājātapaccayo - Postnascence Condition

The post-nascent consciousness and mental factors are related to this prenascent matter by post-nascence condition.

matter: Prenascent matter or body (kāya) are the rūpas born previously by kamma, citta, utu or āhāra and now have reached the static phase (stage of existence).


12. Āsevanapaccayo - Repetition Condition

Asevana is to be understood in the sense of habituating by constant repetition. The things related to habitual recurrence gain greater and greater proficiency, energy, and force. What has been previously learned helps the assimilation of what is learned afterwards. Previous moral or immoral actions are causally related to moral or immoral actions that are done afterwards.

Preceding wholesome states (Javana kusala cittas and its associated cetasikas (except the 7th Javana)) are related to subsequent wholesome states (The same type of kusala citta with its cetasikas following in the Javanas (2nd – 7th Javana)) by repetition condition.

Preceding unwholesome states are related to subsequent unwholesome states by repetition condition. Preceding functional indeterminate states are related to subsequent functional indeterminate states by repetition condition.

How Kama Works     by lawsofthenature.com


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PAṬṬHĀNA Conditional Relations Continued...

Preceding unwholesome states are related to subsequent unwholesome states by repetition condition. Preceding functional indeterminate states are related to subsequent functional indeterminate states by repetition condition.

13. Kammapaccayo - Kamma Condition

By kamma is meant volitional action. When an action is done, the doer has committed something good or bad, as the case may be, for which he has to reap the consequence thereof. Past kamma, both good and bad, are the seeds of causal factors for our present actions, good or bad. Consequences of these various actions will have to be borne by all of us in countless forms of existence, until such time we realize Nibbana.

Wholesome and unwholesome kammas are related to their resultant aggregates (the resultant mental aggregates (khandha) are 36 vipāka-cittas with their max. 38 cetasikas) and kamma-produced matter (here all 18 kamma-born matters which occur in 9 groups (the 5 sense-organ-decads, heartbase-decad, 2 sex-decads and the vital nonad)) by kamma condition.

Motivation is related to the states associated with it (the citta and the other cetasikas associated with cetanā) and to the matter produced thereby (matter produced by consciousness (cittaja rūpa) associated with cetanā) by kamma condition.


14. Vipākapaccayo - Result Condition

Good or bad actions result in good or bad effects. As the result of meritorious actions, one is reborn in the fortunate destinations of the human world and the divine world of devas. As the result of evil actions, one is destined to the four miserable realms, the realm of continuous suffering, the animal world, the realm of ever-hungry beings, and the realm of asuras (the lowest ranks of the deities or demigods of the Kāmaloka).

The four immaterial aggregates (mental aggregates: vedanā-, saññā-, saṅkhāra- and viññāṇakkhandha) are mutually related to one another by kamma-result condition.


15. Āhārapaccayo - Nutriment Condition

Ahara is to be understood in the sense of "holding up strongly" which means "causing to exist firmly." Mental food is necessary for the mind.

Edible food is related to this body by nutriment condition.

The immaterial nutriments (contact (phassa), consciousnesss (viññāṇa), motivation (cetanā)) are related to the states associated with them and to the matter (cittaja rūpas produced by consciousness associated with these nutriments) produced thereby by nutriment condition.


16. Indriyapaccayo - Faculty Condition

Indriya is to be understood in the sense of “exercising control over” the dhammas related by this Relation, in their respective functions. Indirya paccaya may be seen as each indriya exercising control over its respective function. In Buddhist psychological philosophy there are 22 Controlling Powers (indriyas), such as cakkhundriya (eye) and sotindriya (ear), exercising control over their respective functions.

Control over the related dhammas, it may be noted, is not as complete as the dominance of the predominant factor (adhipati) over its adjuncts.

Eye-faculty (eye-sensitivity (cakkhu-pasāda)) is related to eye-consciousness-element (the pair of eye-consciousness (cakkhu-viññāṇa as result of kusala or akusala)) and its associated states (associated cetasikas (here 7 universals)) by faculty condition. Ear-faculty is related to ear-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition.

Nose-faculty is related to nose-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition. Tongue-faculty is related to tongue-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition. Body-faculty is related to body-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition.

Ear-faculty is related to ear-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition. Nose-faculty is related to nose-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition. Tongue-faculty is related to tongue-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition.

Body-faculty is related to body-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition. Physical life-faculty is related to kamma-produced matter by faculty condition.

The immaterial faculties (there are 8 mental faculties: mental life (jīvita), citta, vedanā, saddhā, vīriya, sati, ekaggatā, paññā) are related to the states associated with them (citta and other associated cetasikas) and to the matter (cittaja rūpa (and at paṭisandhi kammaja rūpa)) produced thereby by faculty condition.


17. Jhānapaccayo - Jhāna Condition

Jhana is to be understood in the sense of clearly viewing or actively looking at, i.e., going close to the object and looking at it mentally. The meditator contemplating an object is like someone standing at a commanding height and viewing things from the top. He thereby gains wide-angle full view.

The higher he reaches, the wider his angle of vision. He then sees things in detail as viewed through binoculars. A meditator who has achieved the five jhanas or one who has attained the meritorious types of jhana is able to contemplate dhammas, to see them as they truly are and thereby to gain truth comprehensively, which culminates in Nibbana.

The jhāna-factors (There are 5 jhāna-factors: vitakka, vicāra, pīti, (sukha) vedanā, ekaggatā) are related to the states associated with the jhānas (citta (79, excluding the 10 viññāṇa-cittas) + cetasikas (52)) and to the matter (ittaja rūpa (and at paṭisandhi kammaja rūpa)) produced thereby by jhāna condition.


18. Maggapaccayo - Path Condition

Magga is called path because it is the means of reaching Nibbana. There is also the wrong path which leads to the realms of misfortune. The Ariya Path headed by Right View, sammaditthi, is the only path that leads to Nibbāna, the true happiness, the ultimate Peace (where the universal sorrow of rebirth is ended).

The path-factors (there are 9 path-factors (maggaṅga): 1. paññā = sammā diṭṭhi 2. vitakka = sammā or micchā saṅkappa 3. sammā vācā 4. sammā kammanta virati-cetasikas 5. sammā ājīva 6. vīriya = sammā or micchā vayāma 7. sati = sammā sati 8. ekaggatā = sammā or micchā samādhi 9. diṭṭhi = micchā diṭṭhi) are related to the states (citta (71 cittas with roots) + cetasikas (52)) associated with path and to the matter (matter produced by this rooted mind (sahetuka cittaja rūpa) and rooted kamma (kammaja rūpa)) produced thereby by path condition.


19. Sampayuttapaccayo - Association Condition

The four immaterial aggregates (mental aggregates: vedanā-, saññā-, saṅkhāra- and viññāṇakkhandha or in other words: Citta and cetasikas) are mutually related to one another by association condition.

By this relation, consciousness of sight coalesces with its seven mental properties so thoroughly that they all are unitedly spoken of as sight. Similarly, in all other classes of consciousness, the mental properties, such as contact (phassa), sensation (vedana), and perception (sanna), thoroughly coalesce with the consciousness (citta).


20. Vippayuttapaccayo - Dissociation Condition

In a dish, the six tastes of sweet, sour, hot, astringent, salty, and bitter, come together while each retains its own taste and function.

Material phenomena are related to mental states by dissociation condition. Mental states are related to material phenomena by dissociation condition.

A mental state is causally related to a physical phenomena by way of co-existence dissociation and vice versa. Rebirth consciousness, the three physical groups of ten (kalapas), which are born of kamma that arise at rebirth, are instances of the Relation of Dissociation, here, co-existent dissociation.


21. Atthipaccayo - Presence Condition

This Relation may be compared to a mighty mountain whose presence causes the forests to remain in their lush state. Inasmuch as a properly fed body is kept healthy by the food, so as the presence of the five capital conditions - Conascence Condition, Prenanscence Condition, Postnascence Condition, Nutriment Condition, Faculty Condition - are causally related as among their respective effects.

22. Natthipaccayo - Absence Condition

Just ceased consciousness (all (previous) 89 cittas (excluding Arahatta cuti- citta), which already have vanished) and mental factors are related to the present consciousness (all present 89 cittas (including Arahatta cuti-citta)) and mental factors by absence condition.

The Absence Condition is entirely the Proximity Condition or anantara paccaya. Just as darkness prevails only when the light of the lamp goes out, the Absence Condition arise only when the three phases of time or khanjnas (the moment of arising or genesis (uppada), the moment of development (thiiti), and the moment of dissolution (bhanga)), which represent separate states of consciousness, are totally absent.


23. Vigatapaccayo - Disappearance Condition

Just disappeared consciousness and mental factors are related to the present consciousness and mental factors by disappearance condition.

Just as the moon can shine only when the sun is not shining, only when the foregoing consciousness and its mental concomitants are no longer prevalent, can a fresh consciousness and its mental concomitants arise.


24. Avigatapaccayo - Non-disappearance Condition

Aquatic animals thrive happily in the ocean. When they are captured and are no longer in the presence of the ocean, they cannot live.

Similarly, every conscious moment is related to Non-disappearance Condition in the nascent stage, the static stage, or the cessant stage (uppada, thiiti, bhanga).

These were made known to Gods and men by the all-knowing Buddha 2,500 years ago.


Ref. PAṬṬHĀNA Paccayaniddesa.
The Illustrated Buddhist Philosophy of Relations, The Patthana, The 24 Relations Explained, Compiled by S. S. Khin Maung Aye