There are five Niyaamas (cosmic laws or cosmic order or processes )

These five niyamas govern the universe for all time. They cannot be controlled by any power.

1. Citta Niyāma (The Psychical Order)

Order of mind or psychic law; e.g., processes of consciousness, constituents of consciousness, power of mind, thought-reading, and such other psychic phenomena, which are inexplicable to modern science. By the Relation of Contiguity (Anantarapaccayo), all classes of consciousness and their mental concomitants, which have just ceased, give way to all classes of consciousness and their mental concomitants to arise in the immediately succeeding instant.

2. Utu Niyāma (Physical Inorganic/Caloric/Climate order)

Seasonal phenomena of winds and rains, the unerring order of seasons, characteristic seasonal changes and events, causes of winds and rains, nature of heat, etc.

Buddhism do not deny man-made climate change. In fact, at the time of Buddha, monks used to cut trees. When some villagers complained to Buddha about the adverse effect (environmental damage) they were having when monks cut trees to build monastery, Buddha prohibited monks cutting down trees.

3. Bīja Niyāma (Order of Germs and Seeds/Physical Organic Order)

Rice produced from rice seed, sugary taste from sugar-cane or honey, and peculiar characteristics of certain fruits. From a mango seed a coconut tree will never grow.

The scientific theory of cells and genes and the physical similarity of twins may be ascribed to this order.

4. Kamma Niyāma (Order of Act and Result/Moral Order)

Wholesome and unwholesome acts produce corresponding good and bad results.

5. Dhamma Niyāma (The Natural Phenomenal Sequence/Order of the Norm)

The natural phenomena occurring at the birth of a Bodhisatta in his last birth. A Buddha can appear when human life span is between one hundred thousand and one hundred years and the trend is decreasing. Paccka Buddha cannot appear in a Kalpa where a Sammāsambuddha is enlightened.

Every Bodhisattva must go through ten perfections to attain Buddha hood and must have a partner. In the final life a Bodhisattva must merry and produce one son and renounce the world going for homelessness for at least six day before enlightenment.

Every Buddha's mother passes away one week after giving birth to the child who will become a Buddha and always reborn in Tavatimsa heaven. Every Buddha deliver Abhidhamma in Tavatimsa heaven to mother who passed away seven days after giving birth.

Every Buddha defeat devaputra Mara. Every Buddha has thirty two physical signs of a Great Man and eighty minor characteristics. (Lakkhaṇa Sutta) (DN 30). A Brahma (God) must request to a Buddha to teach the Dhamma (law) and establish the Sasana (dispensation). Buddha's right and left hand disciples pass away (attain Nibbana) before Buddha.

The three fundamental laws of existence - Anicca Impermanence or Change Dukkha (disappointing nature/no true happiness) Anatta Not-self or Insubstantiality - are Dhamma Niyāmas.

The all-knowing Buddha declared the complete Dhamma (cosmic laws of the nature) to Gods and men 2,500 years ago.

Gravitation and other similar laws of nature, the reason for being good, etc.

PAṬṬHĀNA Conditional Relations

The Buddha mentioned in the Paṭṭhāna altogether 24 conditions (paccaya) which relate cause and effect in various ways.

'Condition', is something on which something else, the so-called 'conditioned thing', is dependent, and without which the latter cannot be.

The 24 Conditions (paccaya)

1. Hetupaccayo - Root Condition

Greed (lobha), hatred (dosa), and ignorance (moha), generosity (alobha) , amity (adosa), and wisdom (amoha) - (Six Roots)

2. Ãrammanapaccayo - Object Condition

Objects are of six different kinds: visible object, audible object or sound, odorous object or smell, sapid object or taste, tangible object, and cognizable object.

3. Adhipatipaccayo - Predominance-condition

(1) Chanda (intention or desire-to-do)
(2) Viriya (energy/effort)
(3) Citta (mind or will) and
(4) Vimamsa (investigation or power of reasoning)
Whichever have reached the dominant stage, become lord or leader of their adjuncts. In other words, while any one of them attains predominance, the three others become followers.
Great accomplishments are made possible due to the arising of the above-mentioned four dominants or adhipatis.

4. Anantarapaccaya - Proximity Condition

Anantara is so-called because it causes such states of phenomena as are similar to its own to succeed immediately the following instant.

5. Samanantarapaccayo - Contiguity Condition

Samantara is to be understood in the sense 'thorough rapid action'. The various classes of consciousness are in a state of continual flux, i.e., in a continuous succession of changes.

By the Relation of Immediate Contiguity, the states of phenomena that succeed has similar states as present one and succeed in the immediately following instant. The succession is so quick that the preceding consciousness is hardly distinguishable from the succeeding consciousness.

6. Sahajātapaccayo - Conascence Condition

Here, co-existence means that when a phenomenon arises, it arises together with its effect; or, in other words, it also causes its effect to arise simultaneously. It is just like the lamp which, when lighted, causes light to appear simultaneously.

The four immaterial aggregates vedanā (feeling/sensation), saññā (perception), saṅkhāra (volitional activities), and viññāṇakkhandha (consciousness) are mutually related to one another by co-nascence condition.

The four great essentials (mahābhūta): paṭhavī, āpo, tejo, vāyo-dhātu (earth-, water-, fire- and air-element) are mutually related to one another by co-nascence condition.

At the moment of conception, mind paṭisandhi-citta + its cetasikas and matter 30 kamma-born matters, namely the three kammaja kalāpas: heartbase-decad, body- sensitivity-decad and sex-decad are mutually related to each other by co-nascence condition Consciousness and mental factors are related to mind-produced matter by co-nascence condition.

The great essentials are related to derived matter by co-nascence condition. Material phenomena are sometimes, at the moment of conception (okkantikkhaṇe) or rebirth (paṭisandhi), related to immaterial (i.e. mental) phenomena by conascence condition. Sometimes, during life-time (pavatti), they are not related by co-nascence condition

7. Aññamaññapaccayo - Mutuality Condition

Physical phenomena and mental phenomena are mutually supporting each other. In other words, there is a Relation of Reciprocity between the two.

The four immaterial (i.e. mental) aggregates are related to one another by mutuality condition. The four great essentials are related to one another by mutuality condition.

The four immaterial (i.e. mental) aggregates are related to one another by mutuality condition. The four great essentials are related to one another by mutuality condition.

At the time of conception, mind, paṭisandhi-citta with its cetasikas, and matter, first 30 kammaja rūpas: heartbase-decad, body- sensitivity-decad and sex-decad, are related to each other by mutuality condition.

8. Nissayapaccayo - Support Condition

The material base itself pre-exist and serves as a base. The ground must be ready for a tree to grow on it.

The tree depends on the ground for its existence. On the same principle, meritorious actions and demeritorious actions arise as resultants of previous actions, good or bad. Present actions arise dependending on past actions.

9. Upanissayapaccayo - Decisive support Condition

The presence of some potentiality that causes something to arise. Saddha or conviction in the Triple Gem and the potentiality of kamma is the sufficing condition for all forms of meritorious actions, such as observing the precepts, keeping oneself moral, cultivating the mind for calm, developing the mind for insight, and practicing mindfulness, all these actions leading to attainment of Magga Knowledge, special apperception (abinna), and dwelling in jhana,or sustained cessation (nirodha samapatti).

10. Purejātapaccayo - Prenanscence Condition

What has existed beforehand serves as a condition for the prosperity of what comes after. Sense-objects which exist or arise beforehand to cause good or bad consequence to those that come into contact with them.

11. Pacchājātapaccayo - Postnascence Condition

The post-nascent consciousness and mental factors are related to this prenascent matter by post-nascence condition.

matter: Prenascent matter or body (kāya) are the rūpas born previously by kamma, citta, utu or āhāra and now have reached the static phase (stage of existence).

12. Āsevanapaccayo - Repetition Condition

Asevana is to be understood in the sense of habituating by constant repetition. The things related to habitual recurrence gain greater and greater proficiency, energy, and force. What has been previously learned helps the assimilation of what is learned afterwards. Previous moral or immoral actions are causally related to moral or immoral actions that are done afterwards.

Preceding wholesome states (Javana kusala cittas and its associated cetasikas (except the 7th Javana)) are related to subsequent wholesome states (The same type of kusala citta with its cetasikas following in the Javanas (2nd – 7th Javana)) by repetition condition.

How Kama Works     by

Kama is quite complex to understand, only a Buddha can fully understand everything how Kama works. The phenomenon of Kama and samsara (cycle of life) were well accepted before Gautama Buddha's enlightenment in India, but they were not well defined, explained exactly how they work, and how beings experience Kama. Kama and samsara are the two prerequisites for understanding and making logical sense of the teachings of a Buddha. These foundations must already exist before a Buddha is enlightened in India, an unique environment only to be found in a place where a Buddha appears.

What is Kama?
The Buddha says:— “I declare, O Bhikkhus (monks), that volition (cetanā) is Kama. Having willed, one acts by body, speech and thought.”
“All living beings have Kama as their own.” – Majjhima Nikāya.
“As you sow the seed so shall you reap the fruit.” – Samyutta Nikāya.
Involuntary, unintentional or unconscious actions do not constitute Kamma, because volition (cetanā), the most important factor in determining Kamma, is absent.

Buddhas and Arahants have eradicated ignorance and craving, the roots of Kama, so their actions do not produce Kama. "Destroyed are their germinal seeds (Khina bija); selfish desires no longer grow," states the Ratana Sutta of Sutta nipata.
Four Kinds of Kama

Cetanã is a Cettasika (mental factor) associates with all cittas. It belongs to Sabba-citta saddharana (Essentials which associate with all cittas) - (Phassa - Contact or mental impression, Vedana - Feeling or sensation, Sanna - perception, Cetana - volition or intention, Ekaggata - one-pointedness, concentration, Jivitindriya - vitality or psychic life, Manasikara - attention or advertence).

When Cetanã associates with eight types of moral cittas (consciousness) pertaining to the Sentient Realm (kāmāvacara) it becomes kusala (wholesome) kama and when it associates with the twelve types of immoral cittas (consciousness) it sow the seed for akusala (unwholesome) kama.

Similarly, when Cetanã associates with five types of moral consciousness pertaining to the Realms of Forms (rūpāvacara), and four types of moral consciousness pertaining to the Formless Realms (arūpāvacara), it becomes wholesome consciousness.

Among the 54 Kamavacara Cittas (experienced in the sense sphere), first 8 has the root condition (Hetupaccayo) in greed (lobha), second three has the root condition in hatred (dosa) and the last three has the root condition in ignorance (moha). These are the root conditions of akusala (unwholesome) kama. Likewise, the other three root conditions generosity (alobha) , amity (adosa), and wisdom (amoha) are the root conditions of 8 Maha-kusala cittas (Great moral consciousness of the sensuous sphere with roots), kusala (wholesome) kama.

All classes of consciousness have object condition (Ãrammanapaccayo), as consciousness cannot exist without having an object. When objects are not rightly viewed, kama is produced. What is right view? Insight (vipasana) meditation is the right view. A yogi (meditator) who is practicing insight meditation eradicates kelisa (defilements) through the process of right view and at one point attaints Sotāpanna (stream winner) as a first stage to Nibbana.

It is definitely possible to achieve Sotāpanna in this very life who has saddhā (Conviction, faith) in Buddha, Dhamma (the Teachings) and Sahgha (the Monk Order). Buddhist people have inherited their saddhā (faith) generations after generations 2,500 years already by means of practice, experiencing the dhamma as the Buddha said. Buddhists confirm this by saying:-
Buddham saranam gacchami - I go to the Buddha for refuge
Dhammam saranam gacchami - I go to the Dhamma for refuge
Sangham saranam gacchami - I go to the Sangha for refuge.

The five components - saddhā (Conviction, faith) sati (Mindfulness) samādhi (Concentration) paññā (insight; wisdom) and viriya (Persistence; energy) - must be equally balanced to attain Megga and Phala (supermundane consciousness) and experience the true happiness of Nibbana. This perfect balance is achieved during insight (vipasana) meditation process or, at the time of Buddha, when people are listening to Buddha's or an Arahatta's teachings.That is how Sotāpanna stage is achieved.

Ignorance/Delusion (avijjā) is the cause of kama. Having false view in something that contradicts reality or not knowing things as they truly are, is avijjā, a lack of awareness of the true nature. The Buddha stated in Paticca Samuppāda (Dependent Origination): "Dependent on ignorance arise kammic activities (avijjāpaccaya samkhārā)." Craving (tanhā) is closely associated with avijjā (ignorance), forming an ally with avijjā for the cause of kama. Evil actions are conditioned by these two causes - avijjā (Ignorance) and tanhā (Craving).

One example of avijjā is not knowing or denying the three fundamental laws of existence - Anicca Impermanence or Change Dukkha (disappointing nature/no true happiness) Anatta Not-self or Insubstantiality. A person who is under strong influence of avijjā do not accept good and bad deeds, and hence the effect of good and bad deeds. Thinking that he can get away from men-made laws, he is likely to commit any action, denying kama.

In Abhidhamma, every consciousness is hanging on to some object (physical or mental). Arising and perishing every moment, it flows on like a stream not remaining the same for two consecutive moments. The term for this type of consciousness in Abhidhama is Bhavanga which means factor of life, or indispensable cause or condition of existence. This Bhavanga consciousness, which one always experiences as long as it is uninterrupted by external stimuli, vibrates for a thought-moment and passes away when a physical or mental object enters the mind. During the time occupied by a flash of lightning billions and billions of thought-moments may arise. The rapidity of the succession of such thought-moments is hardly conceivable by the ken of human knowledge. Each thought-moment has seventeen thought-process.

The Thought Process
1 Atīta Bhavanga (Past Bhavanga)
2 Bhavanga Calana (Vibrating Bhavanga)
3 Bhavanga Upaccheda (Arrest Bhavanga)
4 Āvajjana (Sense-door consciousness)
5 Panca Viññāna (Sense consciousness)
6 Sampaticchana (Receiving consciousness)
7 Santīrana (Investigatin consciousness)
8 Votthapana (Determining consciousness)
9,10,11,12,13,14,15 Javana (literally, means running) kama is produced here - seven
16,17 Tadālambana (Registering consciousness)

Of the seven thought-moments of Javana, as stated above, the effect of the first thought-moment, the weakest in potentiality, one may reap in this life itself. This is called ‘Immediately Effective’ (dittha­dhammavedaniya) Kamma. If it does not operate in this life, it becomes ineffective (ahosi).

The next weakest is the seventh thought-moment. Its effect one may reap in the subsequent birth. Hence it is termed ‘Subsequently Effective’ (upapajjavedaniya) Kamma, which, too, automatically becomes ineffective if it does not operate in the second birth.

The effect of the intermediate five thought-moments may take place at any time in the course of one’s wanderings in Samsāra until the final Emancipation. This type of Kamma is termed ‘Indefinitely Effective’ (aparāpariyavedaniya). There is thus a classification of Kamma with reference to its time of operation:—

1 Ditthadhammavedaniya Kamma (Immediately Effective Kamma)
2 Upapajjavedaniya Kamma (Subsequently Effective Kamma)
3 Aparāpariyavedaniya Kamma (Indefinitely Effective Kamma) and
4 Ahosi Kamma (Ineffective Kamma)
Four Kinds of Kama

Angulimala and Kamma
Twenty years after Buddha's enlightenment, a very popular real-life story took place in Sravasti where Buddha lived twenty five years at Jetavana monastery in the Kingdom of Kosala. King Pasenadi of Kosala had a Brahmin called Bhaggavã Gagga. Bhaggavã's wife, Mantani, gave birth to a son.

Bad omen
Bhaggavã noticed that a bright light sparkle from the weapons of the night-guards protecting their residence in the middle of the night, at the time of his son's birth. Early next morning, Bhaggavã hurried to the Royal Astrologer to find out what that omen meant for his son. The Royal Astrologer prepared a horoscope and made planetary calculations and read astrological signs. First the astrologer was in disbelief and reviewed his assessments a few times. Based on the astrological signs and calculations, the Royal Astrologer predicted that Bhaggavã's son was destined to become a notorious bandit when he come of age.

Bhaggavã also heard that people were talking about the blink of light that sparkled from their weapons the night before, at the same time his son was born. Bhaggavã was very upset and dare not break the news to his wife to avoid breaking her heart and anguish. As usual, he went to the royal court to serve King Pasenadi and asked, "how is your night Oh 'King , did you had a sound sleep last night?" The King said he woke up in the middle of the night by flashes of lights which gleamed from the royal coat of arms hanging over his bed in his chamber. At the time of Bhaggavã's son's birth, all the weapons in the city had glowed as if they were on fire.

The brahman said: "Do not fear O King, the entire city experienced this bright sparkle from weapons. Last night my wife gave birth to a son and the royal astrologer predicted that he will be a notorious bandit when he grew up. This flashing light might have cause because of his birth. Your Majesty, allow me to put an end to my newly born son before he grew up and pose threat to the Kingdom." Bhaggavã suggested this out of loyalty to King Pasenadi.

The King asked, "will he be a lone robber or a leader of a gang of bandits?" Bhaggavã said, "A lone bandit is his fate, Oh 'King." Since he would be a lone robber, the King gave advice to Bhaggavã that he should better raise his son and give him proper education, then, perhaps, he may be a good person when he grew up.

Growing up well-behaved
Bhaggavã accepted the King's suggestion and gave his son the name Ahimsaka, harmless. He and his wife, Mantani, gave him good education, moral training and a religious atmosphere at home. As Ahimsaka grew up he behaved very well and also studious and intelligent. He was also physically unusually strong. This made the couple very happy about their son.

Ahimsaka was a gentle child, highly respectful of his parents, behaved not to dishonour and bring shame to the family. He made remarkable progress in education, was very keen to learn Vedic Scriptures and sacred Brahminic traditions and customs, as a teenager. That made Bhaggavã confident of this son that he could not become a notorious criminal. Ahimsaka was an outstanding student determined to achieve higher learning. In ancient India, like today, education was highly valued, regarded as a most noble undertaking, and educated persons were highly honoured and respected.

Going for higher studies
He passed entrance exam of the famous Takkasila, also known as Taxila, University, a renowned learning centre in ancient India, with flying colours. The ancient University city of Takkasila had massive structures, tower arches, wide corridors, large lecture halls, a big library full of educational materials and student dormitories. Bhaggavã and Mantani were expecting that Ahimsaka will soon follow his distinguished father's footstep and hold a higher position in the Royal Court. They bid Ahimsaka farewell and he left home to study at the famous Takkasila University.

On arrival at the Takkasila University, Ahimsaka was very impressed with the atmosphere of the University. At the University, Ahimsaka had the privilege to study under the guidance of the leading teacher, Acariya (teacher) Disapamuk. Since it take eight to ten years to complete the study and learn the knowledge from the acaraya, Ahimsaka would be away from home for several years until he finish his scholarship.

The area of the campus was so wide it reached out miles in every directions. It had gardens, parks and groups of students could be seen here and there discussing, debating or quietly studying on their own. As Takkasila University was well-known in the Indian subcontinent and beyond, students from many cultural backgrounds and ethnicity came together for further studies and exchange their views and experiences.

Then, he got to know acariya Disapamuk, to whom he paid deep respect according to Indian culture and presented gifts to the acariya (teacher) that his parents had sent. Ahimsaka served his teacher faithfully and humbly. He performed so well in his studies that he soon became the most outstanding and brilliant student of the renowned acariya. Impressed by Acariya Disapamuk and his wife, he became their favourite student and was treated as if their own son, as the couple was childless.

Turning point of Ahimsaka's life
As his fame, achievements and closeness to the acariya family was growing, jealously against Ahimsaka also grew within his friends, who were now keeping distance from him. The acariya had almost forgotten about other students and did not pay as much attention as before Ahimsaka joined the acariya, as his relationship with Ahimsaka became more intimate. So, other students wanted to get rid of Ahimsaka. Increasing displeasure against Ahimsaka had been mounting among the other students and they finally planned a conspiracy to fall out Ahimsaka and the acariya. This was the turning point of Ahimsaka's life. His previous life's kamma had started bearing fruit. What was that kamma will be discussed at the end of the story.

The Plot
Other classmate could hardly find any fault about Ahimsaka's academic work to damage his reputation. They then decided to fabricate a false story about his character to poison Ahimsaka's relationship with acariya. They divided themselves into three groups. The first group will tell the acariya that Ahimsaka had been involved in an illicit relationship with his wife, by taking advantage of the acariya's generosity and kindness to him. The second and third group would later support the first group's allegation to strengthen acariya's belief as true. This master-mind plot worked at the end.

Although at first the acariya ridiculed their false story and criticized other students, as time passed, when the second and third group supported the first group's allegation, he became suspicious about Ahimsaka and started observing his wife's and Ahimsaka's close relationship.

Despite the fact that Ahimsaka treated acariya's young wife as his own mother, since he was away from his own family, acariya's trust of Ahimsaka slowly diminished, thinking that there is a truth in it because there is no spoke without fire. Acariya avoided confronting Ahimsaka and his wife and instead waited for an opportunity when Ahimsaka and his wife would engage in a conversation. Then acariya quietly entered the house from the back door and, absorbed in their conversation, Ahimsaka and acariya's wife did not notice or hear him enter the house. Ahimsaka and acariya's wife failed to stand up and greet the acariya as this was an unanticipated and sneaky entrance.

Acariya Disapamuk set this up to find an excuse to reprimand Ahimsaka. The acariya demanded that Ahimsaka immediately leave his house and never set his foot in his house again. Ahimsaka repeatedly apologised the acariya that it was not his intention to disrespect him, he did not see him enter the house. But the acariya was unmoved and remained adamant.

Ahimsaka left his acariya's home and found shelter in the student's dormitory. Acariya Disapamuk's real worry was that his young wife would elope with Ahimsaka, a very handsome, intelligent and youthful man. Then he would be left alone, betrayed by this ungrateful student, since acariya now strongly believed the other student's plot. Acariya wanted to kill Ahimsaka, but that would harm his reputation and he would lose all his students. Therefore, the acariya planned another very sinister plot against Ahimsaka. In ancient India, there was a strictly observed custom to offer the teacher when a student was leaving at the end of his studies.

The next morning, acariya summoned Ahimsaka, told him that he could not be able to teach him further and demanded an offering of a thousand human right-hand fingers, only one from each person, anticipating that Ahimsaka would be killed by someone before he could collect one thousand fingers and he could escape from the blame of Ahimsaka's death. He demanded right-hand fingers so that his victim's left hand would be free to kill him.

Shocked by such an outrageous demand, Ahimsaka exclaimed "O Master! How can I do that? My family never engaged in violence. They are harmless people. I respectfully request you to change your demand of one thousand fingers". The acariya said the demand is not negotiable and if he refused or fail to fulfil his teacher's demand, that would bring ill-reputation upon him and that terrible curse would come upon him. Shortly, after paying homage to his acariya, Ahimsaka left the the campus. His evil plotters celebrated their success of the plot, jubilant that he was gone for good, hoping that he would be killed when collecting fingers.

Before Ahimsaka was trapped into the plot by other jealous students, he was once promised by the acariya that he would receive special instructions, after he made teacher offering, about sciences and supernatural powers. It was not clear what influenced Ahimsaka's consent to fulfil the acariya's demand. It might be his learning desire from the acariya or the culture of strict unquestioning obedience to the teacher or both. Why he did not consider this action as a life-threatening to himself and why he did not think about an alternative method, for example, gathering the fingers from corpses thrown into India’s open charnel grounds, were also arguable.

However, one thing is certain that the real driving force behind this decision was Ahimsaka's past lives kamma. In one of his former lives Ahimsaka was born as a powerful spirit, a so-called yakkha. Yakkha used their superhuman strength to hurt and kill living beings to satisfy their appetite for human flesh. In all his past experiences that are reported in the Jatakas, two things are prominent in him: his physical strength and his lack of compassion.

Ahimsaka's effort to collect fingers started, arming himself with swords, daggers and spears, hanging the collected fingers around his neck like a garland of fingers, hence the name Angulimala. He located himself on top of a cliff in the Jãlinĩ forest west of Kosala, near a crossroad used to carry goods from Kosala to Kosambi, from Kosala to Magadha, from Sravasti to Kansi, and from Kansi to Rome and Greece. Nobody new his real identity, except by his new name, Angulimala.

From his secure hiding place, Angulimala attacked innocent travellers and traders passing through the area. He ruthlessly butchered all of them to collect their little right-hand fingers for his acariya. He would not take any of their valuables or other possessions nor he hate any of them. His real volition is just to collect their fingers. First, he used to hang the fingers on a tree. As birds ate them up, he had to kill more victims. Then he decided to wear around his neck to be in a safe place.

His murderous activities soon spread throughout the countryside and everybody avoided that area by taking a detour through neighbouring Magadha Kingdom. Everybody deserted the forest and Angulimala could not find anybody to cut their fingers off. Now, Angulimala had to go into the vicinity of villages, ambushing and cutting off villagers' fingers as they pass by. He even entered houses at night to cut off the inhabitants fingers. His enormous strength is irresistible. People left their homes and villages and become homeless. These devastated homeless villagers camped at the outskirts of the city and went to the King asking for protection, weeping and lamenting as they told their plight to the King.

Seeing that this notorious robber must be captured, dead or alive, the King announced to his Kingdom that Angulimala would be captured and organised an army detachment, giving instructions to put down this robber. Angulimala's mother, Mantani, heard the King's announcement. She immediately felt that this unknown robber must be her son Ahimsaka, who had never returned from Takkasila and may had fallen into those evil ways predicted by his horoscope.

Mantani told her husband Bhaggava: "It is our son, that fearful bandit! Now soldiers have set out to capture him. Please, dear, go, find him and plead with him to change his life, and bring him home! Otherwise the king will have him killed." But the Brahman said, "I have no use for such a son. The king may do with him what he likes."

Filled with anxiety for her son's safety, Mantani could not sleep that night. Her desire to do anything to save her son from certain death prompted her to go to her son's hiding forest alone and bring him back home. At that time Angulimala had already gathered 999 fingers, only one more was needed to complete the acariya's demand.

Filled with anxiety for her son's safety, Mantani could not sleep that night. Her desire to do anything to save her son from certain death prompted her to go to her son's hiding forest alone and bring him back home. At that time Angulimala had already gathered 999 fingers, only one more was needed to complete the acariya's demand. Mantani cooked some food for Ahimsaka and set out early in the morning where her son was hiding. After an hour's journey, Mantani reached the forest.

Buddha's immeasurable compassion
At that time, Buddha was residing at the Jetavana Monastery. Every morning Buddha surveyed the word with His Mahã Karunã Samãpatti (Immeasurable Compassion). Buddha saw the time has come for Angulimala to be saved. Buddha saw the great unwholesome kamma Angulimala was about to commit. Angulimala's strong desire to complete one thousand fingers would lead him surely to kill even his own mother.

Buddha prevented Angulimala from committing matricide by intervening at the right time Angulimala was approaching his mother to cut off her finger. If Angulimala commit this one of the five most heinous offence, he would certainly reborn in hell and suffer there for a long time. Buddha saw Angulimala's potentiality to attain Nibbana in this very life. Angulimala was born of a noble family and he was a virtuous and noble child. Buddha also saw that Angulimala had sufficient wholesome kamma to enter into monk order and become an Arahat in this very life. Buddha knew that Angulimala was a virtuous person and was misguided by his acariya to become a ruthless murderer.

When our Buddha was a Bodhisattva very long ago, Angulimala met our Buddha. With Buddha's faculty of remembering all former lives, Angulimala was not unknown, Bodhisattva was once his uncle. In many lives they had met before, the Bodhisattva often had conquered Angulimala’s strength of body by his strength of mind. Buddha walked thirty yojana (about 240 miles/one yojana is about eight miles) to save Angulimala.

That is not the end of the story yet....

Where kamma is stored?

Can Kama be prevented from reaping the fruit of it or make inoperative?

According to paramattha succha (ultimate truth), a person doesn't exist, who is the doer of Kamma?

Who reaps the fruit of Kamma?

Everything is due to Kamma, or is it?

PAṬṬHĀNA Conditional Relations Continued...

Preceding unwholesome states are related to subsequent unwholesome states by repetition condition. Preceding functional indeterminate states are related to subsequent functional indeterminate states by repetition condition.

13. Kammapaccayo - Kamma Condition

By kamma is meant volitional action. When an action is done, the doer has committed something good or bad, as the case may be, for which he has to reap the consequence thereof. Past kamma, both good and bad, are the seeds of causal factors for our present actions, good or bad. Consequences of these various actions will have to be borne by all of us in countless forms of existence, until such time we realize Nibbana.

Wholesome and unwholesome kammas are related to their resultant aggregates (the resultant mental aggregates (khandha) are 36 vipāka-cittas with their max. 38 cetasikas) and kamma-produced matter (here all 18 kamma-born matters which occur in 9 groups (the 5 sense-organ-decads, heartbase-decad, 2 sex-decads and the vital nonad)) by kamma condition.

Motivation is related to the states associated with it (the citta and the other cetasikas associated with cetanā) and to the matter produced thereby (matter produced by consciousness (cittaja rūpa) associated with cetanā) by kamma condition.

14. Vipākapaccayo - Result Condition

Good or bad actions result in good or bad effects. As the result of meritorious actions, one is reborn in the fortunate destinations of the human world and the divine world of devas. As the result of evil actions, one is destined to the four miserable realms, the realm of continuous suffering, the animal world, the realm of ever-hungry beings, and the realm of asuras (the lowest ranks of the deities or demigods of the Kāmaloka).

The four immaterial aggregates (mental aggregates: vedanā-, saññā-, saṅkhāra- and viññāṇakkhandha) are mutually related to one another by kamma-result condition.

15. Āhārapaccayo - Nutriment Condition

Ahara is to be understood in the sense of "holding up strongly" which means "causing to exist firmly." Mental food is necessary for the mind.

Edible food is related to this body by nutriment condition.

The immaterial nutriments (contact (phassa), consciousnesss (viññāṇa), motivation (cetanā)) are related to the states associated with them and to the matter (cittaja rūpas produced by consciousness associated with these nutriments) produced thereby by nutriment condition.

16. Indriyapaccayo - Faculty Condition

Indriya is to be understood in the sense of “exercising control over” the dhammas related by this Relation, in their respective functions. Indirya paccaya may be seen as each indriya exercising control over its respective function. In Buddhist psychological philosophy there are 22 Controlling Powers (indriyas), such as cakkhundriya (eye) and sotindriya (ear), exercising control over their respective functions.

Control over the related dhammas, it may be noted, is not as complete as the dominance of the predominant factor (adhipati) over its adjuncts.

Eye-faculty (eye-sensitivity (cakkhu-pasāda)) is related to eye-consciousness-element (the pair of eye-consciousness (cakkhu-viññāṇa as result of kusala or akusala)) and its associated states (associated cetasikas (here 7 universals)) by faculty condition. Ear-faculty is related to ear-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition.

Nose-faculty is related to nose-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition. Tongue-faculty is related to tongue-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition. Body-faculty is related to body-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition.

Ear-faculty is related to ear-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition. Nose-faculty is related to nose-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition. Tongue-faculty is related to tongue-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition.

Body-faculty is related to body-consciousness-element and its associated states by faculty condition. Physical life-faculty is related to kamma-produced matter by faculty condition.

The immaterial faculties (there are 8 mental faculties: mental life (jīvita), citta, vedanā, saddhā, vīriya, sati, ekaggatā, paññā) are related to the states associated with them (citta and other associated cetasikas) and to the matter (cittaja rūpa (and at paṭisandhi kammaja rūpa)) produced thereby by faculty condition.

17. Jhānapaccayo - Jhāna Condition

Jhana is to be understood in the sense of clearly viewing or actively looking at, i.e., going close to the object and looking at it mentally. The meditator contemplating an object is like someone standing at a commanding height and viewing things from the top. He thereby gains wide-angle full view.

The higher he reaches, the wider his angle of vision. He then sees things in detail as viewed through binoculars. A meditator who has achieved the five jhanas or one who has attained the meritorious types of jhana is able to contemplate dhammas, to see them as they truly are and thereby to gain truth comprehensively, which culminates in Nibbana.

The jhāna-factors (There are 5 jhāna-factors: vitakka, vicāra, pīti, (sukha) vedanā, ekaggatā) are related to the states associated with the jhānas (citta (79, excluding the 10 viññāṇa-cittas) + cetasikas (52)) and to the matter (ittaja rūpa (and at paṭisandhi kammaja rūpa)) produced thereby by jhāna condition.

18. Maggapaccayo - Path Condition

Magga is called path because it is the means of reaching Nibbana. There is also the wrong path which leads to the realms of misfortune. The Ariya Path headed by Right View, sammaditthi, is the only path that leads to Nibbāna, the true happiness, the ultimate Peace (where the universal sorrow of rebirth is ended).

The path-factors (there are 9 path-factors (maggaṅga): 1. paññā = sammā diṭṭhi 2. vitakka = sammā or micchā saṅkappa 3. sammā vācā 4. sammā kammanta virati-cetasikas 5. sammā ājīva 6. vīriya = sammā or micchā vayāma 7. sati = sammā sati 8. ekaggatā = sammā or micchā samādhi 9. diṭṭhi = micchā diṭṭhi) are related to the states (citta (71 cittas with roots) + cetasikas (52)) associated with path and to the matter (matter produced by this rooted mind (sahetuka cittaja rūpa) and rooted kamma (kammaja rūpa)) produced thereby by path condition.

19. Sampayuttapaccayo - Association Condition

The four immaterial aggregates (mental aggregates: vedanā-, saññā-, saṅkhāra- and viññāṇakkhandha or in other words: Citta and cetasikas) are mutually related to one another by association condition.

By this relation, consciousness of sight coalesces with its seven mental properties so thoroughly that they all are unitedly spoken of as sight. Similarly, in all other classes of consciousness, the mental properties, such as contact (phassa), sensation (vedana), and perception (sanna), thoroughly coalesce with the consciousness (citta).

20. Vippayuttapaccayo - Dissociation Condition

In a dish, the six tastes of sweet, sour, hot, astringent, salty, and bitter, come together while each retains its own taste and function.

Material phenomena are related to mental states by dissociation condition. Mental states are related to material phenomena by dissociation condition.

A mental state is causally related to a physical phenomena by way of co-existence dissociation and vice versa. Rebirth consciousness, the three physical groups of ten (kalapas), which are born of kamma that arise at rebirth, are instances of the Relation of Dissociation, here, co-existent dissociation.

21. Atthipaccayo - Presence Condition

This Relation may be compared to a mighty mountain whose presence causes the forests to remain in their lush state. Inasmuch as a properly fed body is kept healthy by the food, so as the presence of the five capital conditions - Conascence Condition, Prenanscence Condition, Postnascence Condition, Nutriment Condition, Faculty Condition - are causally related as among their respective effects.

22. Natthipaccayo - Absence Condition

Just ceased consciousness (all (previous) 89 cittas (excluding Arahatta cuti- citta), which already have vanished) and mental factors are related to the present consciousness (all present 89 cittas (including Arahatta cuti-citta)) and mental factors by absence condition.

The Absence Condition is entirely the Proximity Condition or anantara paccaya. Just as darkness prevails only when the light of the lamp goes out, the Absence Condition arise only when the three phases of time or khanjnas (the moment of arising or genesis (uppada), the moment of development (thiiti), and the moment of dissolution (bhanga)), which represent separate states of consciousness, are totally absent.

23. Vigatapaccayo - Disappearance Condition

Just disappeared consciousness and mental factors are related to the present consciousness and mental factors by disappearance condition.

Just as the moon can shine only when the sun is not shining, only when the foregoing consciousness and its mental concomitants are no longer prevalent, can a fresh consciousness and its mental concomitants arise.

24. Avigatapaccayo - Non-disappearance Condition

Aquatic animals thrive happily in the ocean. When they are captured and are no longer in the presence of the ocean, they cannot live.

Similarly, every conscious moment is related to Non-disappearance Condition in the nascent stage, the static stage, or the cessant stage (uppada, thiiti, bhanga).

These were made known to Gods and men by the all-knowing Buddha 2,500 years ago.

Ref. PAṬṬHĀNA Paccayaniddesa.
The Illustrated Buddhist Philosophy of Relations, The Patthana, The 24 Relations Explained, Compiled by S. S. Khin Maung Aye