Namo tassa bhagavato arahato samma sambuddhassa
Honour to the Blessed One, the Exalted One, the fully and perfectly Enlightened One


Dying Thought-Process

Appearance of Kamma-related Objects
Now, to those who are about to die, by the power of kamma that is going to condition the next birth, one of the following three objects always presents itself through one of the six doors:
1 Kamma object
the kamma that produces rebirth in the subsequent life enters the mind door;
2 Kamma-nimitta
Sign of kamma, i.e. the scenes, the sound, the smell, etc., that are or were observed during the performance of the kamma which is going to bear result;
3 Gati-nimitta
Sign of destiny, i.e. the scenes of people or buildings in connection with the place where one is going to be reborn according to the successful kamma. Since the kamma-object is in the form of a past cetanà, it presents itself through the mind-door. If the kamma-nimitta belongs to the past kamma, it also presents itself through the mind-door. If it belongs to the present kamma, it can enter through any of the six doors depending on its form.
If it is a visual object, it will enter through the eye-door; if it is an audible sound, it will enter through the ear-door; and so on. Gati-nimitta belongs to the present. So, depending on its form, it may present itself through any of the six doors.

Maranàsanna Nimitta
(Kamma-related Objects at the Dying Moments) In the present life a person will be alive as long as the kusalakamma (wholesome deed), which has given him rebirth in this life, keeps on supporting him, i.e., keeps on producing bhavanga cittas (life continuum) as kamma-resultant. Just before that supporting kamma fades out, of the many kusala-kammas and akusala-kammas which compete with one another to have the chance of bearing kamma-resultant, one kamma will emerge as the winner.

This successful kamma may appear in the life-continuum (mind-door) of the person as kamma-object. When this happens the person may recollect the good or bad action which he has performed in the past in connection with the successful kamma. The moral or immoral consciousness, experienced at that particular moment, arises now as a fresh consciousness. In other words, it is a recurring of the consciousness which one has experienced in performing the action.

At times it may be a sign or symbol associated with the successful kamma that appears at one of the sense-doors. It may be one of the five physical objects viewed through one of the five doors as a present object, or viewed through the mind-door as a past object. This past or present object associated with the successful kamma is called ‘kamma-nimitta’ or ‘sign of kamma’.

For example, let us suppose that a person listens to the Dhamma at his dying moment and this good kamma becomes the successful kamma to bear kamma-resultant for the next life. In this case, the present audible Dhamma words grasped through the ear becomes the ‘kamma-nimitta’.

In another case, let us suppose that a dying teacher sees through his mental eye (mano-vinnàna) the students he has taught. This is also ‘kamma-nimitta’ in the form of a past object which appears at the mind-door.

Or say, in another case, a dying butcher hears the groans of the cattle he has killed. This past audible object is also ‘kamma-nimitta’ presented to him through the mind-door. At times some symbol of the place in which he is to be reborn according to the successful kamma may appear at the mind-door.

For example, celestial beings or celestial mansions, etc., may appear to the dying person if he is to be reborn in one of the celestial abodes, or miserable people in hell or hellhounds, etc., may appear to him if he is to be reborn in hell. These objects related to the place of rebirth are known as ‘gati-nimitta’ or ‘sign of destiny’.

Thus, when a person is dying, one of the three types of maranàsanna-nimitta, namely, ‘kamma’, ‘kamma-nimitta’ or ‘gatinimitta’, will always appear at one of the six sense-doors. The person will die soon after and will be reborn in the next life. Then his pañisandhi-citta, bhavanga-citta and cuti-citta in the new life will all grasp the maranàsanna-nimitta of the past life.

Rebirth Thought-Process

Rebirth-consciousness arises in the new life as the resultant of the kamma which has the chance to condition the new life. Rebirth consciousness joins the new existence with the old one; so it is called pañisandhi-citta.

The rebirth-consciousness will be accompanied by its concomitants (cetasikas). It is the nucleus as well as the foregoer and leader of its associates. It will have a physical base (hadayavatthu), provided by the same kamma, if the new existence takes place in panca-vokàra-planes (planes of five khandha). If the new existence takes place in catu-vokàra-plane (plane of four-khandha, i.e. arupa-plane), there will be no physical base.

The rebirth-consciousness grasps the sense-object which the marana-sannà javanas have observed. If the javanas observed kamma-nimitta, the rebirth-consciousness also observes kamma nimitta. Moreover, all bhavanga cittas in the new life also observe the same sense-object.

The object of rupa-pañisandhi is kamma-nimitta which may be the pañibhàga-nimitta of kasiõa that usually appears at the minddoor at the time of death.

The object of arupa-pañisandhi is also kamma-nimitta which may be either concepts such as infinite space (àkàsa) or mahaggatacittas.

Person and Patisandhi (Rebirth)
1. The four apàya-persons in niriya, tiracchàna, peta and asura planes are born with akusala-vipàka upekkhà santirana ahetuka citta. This citta is the resultant of immoral kamma. It becomes the relinking (rebirth-consciousness) at the moment of descent into the woeful state. Then it lapses into life-continuum (bhavanga) and finally it becomes the death-consciousness and is cut off.

2. In the human realm and catumahàràjika realm, degraded human beings such as those who are blind, deaf, dumb, retarded or deformed by birth, and degraded earth- bound deities (devas) are born with kusala-vipàka upekkhà santirana ahetuka citta.

3. In all the seven sensuous blissful planes, normal human beings and deities (devas) are born with any one of the eight mahàvipàka cittas. Thus the eight great resultants act as the relinking (rebirth-consciousness), the life- continuum and the death consciousness everywhere in the blissful sense-sphere. Among humans and deities, dvi-hetuka persons are born with four mahàvipàka nàna-vippayutta cittas whereas ti-hetuka persons are born with four mahàvipàka nàna-sampayutta cittas.

4. Among the rupa-brahmas:
i. the brahmas of the 3 first-jhàna planes are born with the rupàvacara first-jhàna vipàka citta,

ii the brahmas of the 3 second-jhàna planes are born with either the rupàvacara second-jhàna vipàka citta or the rupàvacara third-jhàna citta,

iii the brahmas of the 3 third-jhàna planes are born with the rupàvacara fourth-jhàna citta,

iv the brahmas of the fourth-jhàna planes, with the exception of asannàsatta brahmas, are born with the rupàvacara fifth-jhàna citta, and

v Asannàsatta brahmas are born with jivita-navaka-kalàpa rupa.

5. Akàsànancàyatana-brahmas are born with àkàsànancà-yatana-vipàka citta, Vinnànancàyatana-brahmas are born with vinnànancà-yatana-vipàka citta, Akincannàyatana-brahmas are born with àkincannàyatana-vipàka citta, and N’evasannà-n’àsannàyatana-brahmas are born with n’evasannà-n’àsannàyatana-vipàka citta. 
Kalama Sutta

Buddha said in Kalama Sutta

Do not believe in what you have heard; do not believe in traditions, because they had been handed down for many generations; do not believe in anything because it is rumoured and spoken by many; do not believe merely because a written statement of some old sage is produced; do not believe in that as truth to which you have become attached by habit; do not believe merely the authority of your teachers and elders.

After observation and analysis, when it agrees with reason and is conducive to the good and gain of one and all, then accept it and live up to it. Do not, therefore, believe me when I come to the philosophical issues until and unless you are convinced of what I say either as a sequel to proper reasoning or by means of a practical approach.

These things are bad; these things are blamable; these things are censured by the wise; undertaken and observed, these things lead to harm and ill," abandon them. These things are good; these things are not blamable; these things are praised by the wise; undertaken and observed, these things lead to benefit and happiness,' enter on and abide in them.

Chigala Sutta

Chiggala Sutta:
Monks, suppose that this great earth were totally covered with water, and a man were to toss a yoke with a single hole there. A wind from the east would push it west, a wind from the west would push it east. A wind from the north would push it south, a wind from the south would push it north. And suppose a blind sea-turtle were there. It would come to the surface once every one hundred years. Now what do you think: would that blind sea-turtle, coming to the surface once every one hundred years, stick his neck into the yoke with a single hole?
It would be a sheer coincidence, lord, that the blind sea-turtle, coming to the surface once every one hundred years, would stick his neck into the yoke with a single hole. It's likewise a sheer coincidence that one obtains the human state. It's likewise a sheer coincidence that a Tathagata, worthy & rightly self-awakened, arises in the world. It's likewise a sheer coincidence that a doctrine & discipline expounded by a Tathagata appears in the world. Now, this human state has been obtained. A Tathagata, worthy & rightly self-awakened, has arisen in the world. A doctrine & discipline expounded by a Tathagata appears in the world. Therefore your duty is the contemplation, 'This is stress... This is the origination of stress... This is the cessation of stress. Your duty is the contemplation, 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.

Thought Process

The subject, the consciousness, receives objects from within and without. When a person is in a state of profound sleep his mind is said to be vacant, or, in other words, in a state of Bhavaïga. We always experience such a passive state when our minds do not respond to external objects. This flow of Bhavanga is interrupted when objects enter the mind.

Javana or Impulsion
It is at this stage that an action is judged whether moral or immoral. Kamma is performed at this stage; if viewed rightly (yoniso manasikàra), the Javana becomes moral; if viewed wrongly (ayoniso manasikàra), it becomes immoral. In the case of an Arahant this Javana is neither moral nor immoral, but merely functional (Kiriya). This Javana stage usually lasts for seven thought-moments, or, at times of death, five.

The sense-door consciousness (Pancadvàràvajjana) arises and ceases. At this stage the natural flow is checked and is turned towards the object.

This sense operation is followed by a moment of reception of the object so seen (Sampaticchana).

Next comes the investigating faculty (Santirana) 19 or a momentary examination of the object so received.

After this comes that stage of representative cognition termed the determining consciousness (Votthapana).

The necessity of Theravada Buddhism
Theravada is the oldest form of Buddhism practiced at the time of Buddha in India. It is the most pristine form of Buddhism. It is very important that Buddhist devotees have access to true Buddhism and understand the rare opportunity they gained - born as a human during the time of a Buddha's dispensation due to the effect of their previous good kamma.

It is a great fortunate not to be born in eight unsuitable environments. It is unfortunate to be born in the following environments when there is a Buddha's dispensation exist in the universe. What are these environments?

1. Born in hell (niraya)
2. Born as a animal (tiracchana).
3. Born in peta loka.
4. Born in arupa loka (formless realms).
5. Born in places where there are no monks or lay people who can teach the     Dhamma.
6. Born in an environment where people belief in wrong view (miccaditthi).
7. Born as handicaps who cannot hear or see.
8. It is also unfortunate to be born as human at the time when there is no     Buddha's sassana (dispensation) although kamma and samsara are     understood in that environment .

Buddha said in Kalama Sutta do not believe unless you are convinced and how difficult it is to be born as a human and to encounter a Buddha's sasanna (dispensation) in Chigala sutta. Basic foundations to understand Buddha's teaching are previous life's good kamma, understanding cause and effect (kamma) and samsara (life cycle, reborn again and again)

Darwin's Evolution
Can Darwin's theory of "The Origin of Species" by means of natural selection and survival of the fittest which explains the process of evolution help convince Buddhist?
Is it true as Darwin said that life exists in its present from as a result of evolution?

The Buddhist suttas describe thirty-one distinct "planes" or "realms" of existence into which beings can be reborn, again and again, during this long wandering through samsara life cycle.

Life of beings are all conditioned (effect of kamma), unlike life in plants. Human are born with either two (alobha and adosa), dvihetu-patisandhika, or three (alobha, adosa and amoha), tihetu-patisandhika, good root conditions, whereas animals are born without any of the good root condition, determined by the circumstances at the time of death. Animals, born without any good root condition (ahetu-patisandhika), are impossible to change through Darwin's evolution to human. The intellectual level of animals cannot be changed through evolution as they are born without any good root condition, as a result animals do not have "shame" and "fear". Until today, no scientific experiment can proof that animals have shame and fear. The possible highest intellectual level of a being is determined at the time of conception patisandhi.

Animals can be born as human or even devas in heaven only after they die, and if they have good kamma.

It is not true at all that God created men because God does not exist. Illusive God was created by men. The region where this all mighty creator God was created was Middle-East, where people used to believe many gods and fight against each other in the name of their gods. Then they created this one all mighty creator God to unify different god believers and live in peace. God idea was born out of politics, totally embedded in politics, and no way of separating religion and politics.

Beings are the creator of themselves. External creator does not exist. What we sowed, what we reap. What we do, what we get. Creation of beings has no place in Buddhism. Buddhism cannot be used as a means to gain political aims. Every Buddha's message is how to attain peace and happiness - true happiness - nibbana, nothing else. This word nibbana is only known to men and devas during the time of a Buddha's dispensation, otherwise nobody knew about nibbana. Buddha told there is nibbana and when you walk through the path (eight noble path), you will come face to face with nibbana.

The key to attain nibbana is to purify one's mind from defilement (thana) - greed, desire, craving, attachment, lust. That means there is no place for impurity - lobha (greed, desire, craving, attachment, lust), dosa (anger, hatred, ill-will, aversion), moha (ignorance) - which is going on in everyday worldly affairs. A Buddha's teachings cannot be used other than attaining nibbana. There is no such loophole in Buddha's teachings that anybody can apply to achieve other than nibbana.

How can someone prove that there is no God?
It is actually not difficult at all to prove and convince oneself that there is no God. Unlike Prof. Steven Hawkin's way of proving 'there is no God', we don't need complex mathematical formulas to prove that. Although some people categorically deny kamma, they cannot avoid experiencing the effect of the law of kamma, which governs the universe. When something happens (good or bad) to someone there is always a cause; there is no effect without a cause. Once this experience has been understood and accepted, the delusion of 'everything is God's will' makes no sense anymore. Therefore, there is no God. These two phenomena are opposite of each other; they do not belong together. Both cannot be acceptable at the same time. In other words, one cannot hold both views at the same time. When one phenomenon is accepted the other has no place there.
-Martin Barua

Process of Consciousness
‘Vithi’ means a chain of consciousness or cognitive series that arises when a sense object appears at one of the sense-doors in order to be aware of the object.

As the road passes one village after another without skipping any nor changing the order of the villages, so also the cittas (consciousness) arise one after another in the order they should according to the law of cittas (citta-niyàma).

The Life-span of Citta
Cittas arise and dissolve in a person at a tremendous rate of more than a thousand billion (10¹²) times per eye-wink, and there are about 250 eye-winks in a second. So the life-span of a citta (consciousness) is less than one-thousand billionth of a second. The life-span or duration of a citta is measured by three short instants of the distinct features in the arising and passing away of a citta. These are:
1. Uppàda – the genetic instant
2. Thiti – the existing instant
3. Bhanga – the dissolving instant
These three short instants (khanas) are said to be equal to one moment of consciousness or conscious-moment (cittakkhana). So the life-time of a citta is equal to the three short instants of arising, existing and dissolving of the citta or it is equal to one conscious-moment or one cittakkhana. One cittakkhana is better represented by ‘one conscious-moment’ rather than ‘a thought-moment’ which is coined by some translators.

The duration of one cittakkhana (i.e., one conscious-moment) will be hard to be verified by science. But we ourselves know from experience that it is possible within one single second to dream of innumerable things and events.

The life-span of Rupa
The life-span of rupa or corporeality is 17 times longer than that of citta. So we can say that the life-span of rupa is equal to 17 cittakkhanas or 17 conscious-moments or 17 x 3 = 51 short instants as there are 3 short instants in a moment of consciousness.

Thus rupa also arises and dissolves at a tremendous rate of more than 58 billion times per second. The difference between citta and rupa is that citta arises one after another whereas rupa arises by thousands of units at a small instant and it goes on arising incessantly at every small instant. Therefore rupa may be piled up to large masses which are visible to the naked eye whereas the fleeting stream of consciousness is invisible to the naked eye.

Six Types of Vinnàna
Vinnàna cittas (consciousness) may be classified as follows according to the six sense-doors and the six physical-bases (vatthu):
1 Cakkhu-vinnàna – 2 eye-consciousness
2 Sota-vinnàna 2 ear-consciousness
3 Ghàna-vinnàna – 2 nose-consciousness
4 Jivhà-vinnàna – 2 tongue-consciousness
5 Kàya-vinnàna – 2 body-consciousness
6 Mano-vinnàna – 79 mind-consciousness
Please note that eye-consciousness arises at the eye-door depending on the eye-base (vatthu) and so on. The mindconsciousness arises at the mind-door depending on the hadayavatthu in the heart.

The first five vinnànas comprise 2 sense-impressions each whereas mano-vinnàna comprises 79 types of consciousness.

Six Types of Vithi
Vithi or the cognitive series of consciousness is also divided into six classes which may be named according to either the six sense-doors or the six types of vinnàna as follows:

1 Cakkhu-dvàra-vithi = cakkhu-vinnàna-vithi
It is the cognitive series of consciousness connected with the eye-door or with the eye-consciousness.

2 Sota-dvàra-vithi = sota-vinnàna-vithi
It is the cognitive series of consciousness connected with the ear-door or with the ear-consciousness.

3 Ghàna-dvàra-vithi = Ghàna-vinnàna-vithi
It is the cognitive series of consciousness connected with the nose-door or with the nose-consciousness.

4 Jivhà-dvàra-vithi = Jivhà-vinnàna-vithi
It is the cognitive series of consciousness connected with the tongue-door or with the tongue-consciousness.

5 Kàya-dvàra-vithi = Kàya-vinnàna-vithi
It is the cognitive series of consciousness connected with the body-door or with the body-consciousness.

6 Mano-dvàra-vithi = Mano-vinnàia-vithi
It is the cognitive series of consciousness connected with the mind-door or with the mind-consciousness.

The Causes for the Arising of Vithi
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