Monks, these two slander the Tathagata. Which two?
He who explains what was not said or spoken by the Tathagata as said or spoken
by the Tathagata. And he who explains what was said or spoken by the Tathagata
as not said or spoken by the Tathagata. These are two who slander the Tathagata.
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (extracted)
The Blessed One said to Ven. Ananda, "Now, if it occurs to
any of you-'The teaching has lost its authority; we are without a Teacher'-
do not view it in that way. Whatever Dhamma (laws) & Vinaya (disciplines) I have
pointed out & formulated for you, that will be your Teacher when I am gone. Now
at that time the twin sal-trees were in full bloom, even though it was not the
time for flowering. They showered, strewed, & sprinkled on the Tathagata's body
in homage to him. Heavenly coral-tree blossoms fell from the sky, showering,
strewing, & sprinkling the Tathagata's body in homage to him. Heavenly
sandalwood powder fell from the sky, showering, strewing, & sprinkling the
Tathagata's body in homage to him. Heavenly music was playing in the sky, in
homage to the Tathagata. Heavenly songs were sung in the sky, in homage to the
Tathagata. But it is not to this extent that a Tathagata is worshipped, honored,
respected, venerated, or paid homage to. Rather, the monk, nun, male lay
follower, or female lay follower who keeps practicing the Dhamma in accordance
with the Dhamma, who keeps practicing masterfully, who lives in accordance with
the Dhamma: that is the person who worships, honors, respects, venerates, & pays
homage to the Tathagata with the highest homage.
Coming up on this site - Laws of the Nature. Be patient, visit regularly.
It is actually not difficult at all to prove and convince oneself that there is no God. Unlike Prof. Steven Hawkins way of proving 'there is no God', we don't need complex mathematical
formulas to prove that. Although some people categorically deny kamma, they cannot avoid experiencing the effect of the law of kamma, which governs the universe. When something happens (good or bad) to
someone there is always a cause; there is no effect without a cause. Once this experience has been understood and accepted, the delusion of 'everything is God's will' makes no sense anymore.
Therefore, there is no God. These two phenomena are opposite of each other. Both cannot be acceptable at the same time. In other words, one cannot hold both views at the same time.
When one phenomenon is accepted the other has no place there.
Buddhism (The laws of the nature) is difficult to understand. There must be
foundations to understand Buddhism on earth where Buddhism can be established.
The 'spiritual laws of the nature' will not make any sense to those people who
believe in God, all mighty. Everything is God's will; God reward; God punish;
God forgive. Somebody can commit serious crimes and ask God to forgive him so
that his sin will vanish. Or even worst, somebody can commit very serious crime
and he believes that God will reward him for doing so. That will never happen.
These are very dangerous ideas which will only destroy oneself.
existence is conditioned or binding. In other word, it is the "cause and effect"
that our existence is experiencing. We were born because there was cause from
our previous lives and that "effect of the cause" is we were born. So, first
basic foundation to understand Buddhism is "cause and effect", that is laws of
kama. Kama, in very simple words, is "what we do what we get",
"what we sow what we reap";. There is no creator. God never created men; men
created God because they do not understand why things are happening to them -
good or bad. So, they created God. God is doing it; everything is God's will.
Human’s understanding has limitations; human cannot understand everything. That
is why a Buddha never says anything that human cannot understand, although
Buddhas know everything. Buddhas are also human; but not like any other human.
They are enlightened One. When someone asked Buddha, Are you a human? Buddha
said, "No". Then he asked, Are you a deva from heaven? Buddha said, "No". Are
you a Brahma from Brahma world? Buddha said, "No". Then he said, 'Who are you
then?' Buddha gave him an example. "A lotus flower is born out of water, belongs
to water, but stays above the water". What Buddha ment was "a Buddha is born out
of mankind, belongs to human world, but stays above all other human." What
Buddha was telling him is "Buddhas are not ordinary human." A Buddha cannot be
compared with any other human. In that sense, Buddha said “No” , when asked "Are
you a human?" That is why nobody can take place of a Buddha after Buddha passed
We were born, again and again, depending on our Karma. We were
born many, many times, infect countless times according to Buddha, in the past
and will be born in the future as long as kama (cause) is there. How it all
started (origin)? What is that born again? When we born again, is it the same as
we are today? Where are the places we were born again and again? There is only
one religion on earth where we find these foundations -- cycle of birth and
kama. That is in Hinduism in India. That is why every Buddha is born in a
Hindu Royal family in India and establishes Buddhism there. After Buddhism is
established, it spread all over the world.
The culture of
renunciation and searching for truth
To be continued...
Why Buddhism faded away in India today, although it was a major faith well
over one thousand years after Buddha passed away?
At the time of Buddha, someone asked Buddha:"What will be the future of the
great teaching you have established?" Buddha said: "It will fade away where it
is originated, one day it will go to the east and it will stay there." That is
what exactly happened. To learn more about what really happened on the ground
that caused Buddhism to fade away where it was originate, please refer to the
book - History of Pre-Buddhistic Indian Philosophy By Dr. Beni Madbab Barua,
late Professor and Head of the Department of Pali, Calcutta University, India.
In the Blessed One's Final Exhortation Buddha said: "If it is desired, Ananda,
the Sangha (monk order) may, when I am gone, abolish the lesser and minor rules.
But, Buddha did not elaborate which minor rules can be abolished. Since Ananda,
at this point, did not ask what the minor rules were, the Sangha decided not to
abolish any of the rules of the Vinaya (Code of disciplines). Buddha knew one
day Buddhism will go to the east and in countries like China, Japan and Korea,
it is very cold and monks will not be able to observer all the disciplines. That
is why Buddha paved the way so that disciplines could be changed to suit the
climate of those places. Buddha also knew that original disciplines will remain
unchanged in the Theravada Buddhism. About five hundred years after Buddha
passed away, Mahayana Buddhism was born and they gave the reason that Buddha
gave the permission to change the disciplines just minutes before Buddha passed
Coming up on this site - Laws of the Nature. Be patient, visit regularly.
The horizontal line, maximum limit at any one time, moves very slowly and it is
thereby decreasing the maximum limit. It will ultimately go down to ten years,
which will be the
maximum years a human could live at that time. Then, it will rise gradually and
at the maximum a
human will be able to live hundreds of thousands of years. After that, the limit
will start fall to
ten years. This cycle will go on. To complete one cycle, it takes billions of
It is said in Pali Canon that upon Gotama Buddha's parinibbana, human lifespan will
continue to decrease until its lowest point, which is 10 years old. Human greed, hatred, envy, Anger, Ill-Will, delusion and ignorance will increase as the lifespan
decreases and they will behave so badly that it will be despicable, although technologically they will keep on advancing. What is happening today is just the beginning.
Then a mishap occurs which will eliminate a great number of human beings.
The remainings will realize the benefits of good deeds and start practicing them. Thus human lifespan
will increase until asankhayas. Then it will fall again. This cycle will continue many times.
Then Metteyya Buddha will appear when human life sapn is within the range of 100,000 and 100 years, for a
Buddha will only appear when human lifespan is on decrease. It is said that Metteyya Buddha will appear when human life sapn is 80,000 years.
A Buddha cannot appear when human lifespan is on the increase or at the peak or more than 100,000 years or less than 100 years because the environment is not right.
They do not even see a death of a human that often when human live over 100,000 years. In other words, death of a human is a very raer event. Environment is not right for the
understanding of impartment, ill, not-self and four Nobel Truth. When human lifespan is less than 100 years, like present time, human behave horribly and commit horrendous
They will not listen what Buddha is teaching. So, Buddha will not appear during that time.
Human lifespan decreases 1 year in every 100 years. During Buddha's time human lifespan was 100 years. So, Buddha appeared. But, Buddha's dispensation can still continue like
today, when human lifespan is 75 years and it will continue to stay until human lifespan is about 50 years, i.e. 5,000 years after Buddha passed away.
Why human live over 75 years at this time? During Buddha's time human lifespan was 100 years but Buddha said human could live 160 years, which means 60 percent more, provided
they have the kamma to live. It is recorded in Buddhist scriptures that some monks lived 160 years. According to that calculation 60 percent of 75 is 45 and adding 45 to 75
is 120 years. Therefore, today there is the possibility human can live up to 120 years. But we do not see a single human being live 120 years today. Again according to that
rate of decrease of human lifespan, it will take another 6,500 years when human will live only 10 years.
Coming up on this site - Laws of the Nature. Be patient, visit regularly.
Kalpa is a unit of time.
The Buddha had not spoken about the
exact length of the kalpa in number of years. However, He had given several
astounding analogies to understand it.
1. Imagine a huge empty cube at the beginning of a kalpa, approximately
16 miles in each side. Once every 100 years, you insert a tiny mustard seed into
the cube. According to the Buddha, the huge cube will be filled even before the
2. Imagine a gigantic rocky mountain at the beginning of kalpa,
approximately 16 x 16 x 16 miles (dwarfing Mt. Everest). You take a small piece
of silk and wipe the mountain once every 100 years. According to the Buddha, the
mountain will be completely depleted even before the kalpa ends.
In one situation, some monks wanted to know how many kalpas had died so far. The
Buddha gave the analogy:
If you count the total number of sand particles
at the depths of the Ganges river, from where it begins to where it ends at the
sea, even that number will be less than the number of passed kalpas. How many
Buddhas appear in a kalpas?
Asankya - innumerable, incalculable number.
Kalpas - the various kinds of cycles.
Human's life span never remains at one length of time. It is always on the increase or undergoing a gradual diminution, but it never exceeds
asankya in length and never diminishes to less than ten years. The slow progress of the change is imperceptible, except after long intervals of time.
The decreasing life span of man is directly correspond to deterioration in his stature, intellect, and morals.
Ayu-kalpa - the life expectancy of a typical human being in a particular era during gradually changing process is Ayu-kalpa.
Antha-kalphas - one cycle of changing human's life span starting from 10 years to asankya and then back to 10 years.
This number is directly proportional to the level of virtue of people in that era. Currently this value hovers around 100 years and is continually decreasing.
Antha-kalphas ends in three ways: by war, by hunger and by plague. During the ending process majority of human gets extinct.
Asankya-kalpa - Twenty Antah-kalphas is one asankya-kalpha and is equivalent to a quarter of Maha-Kalpa.
Maha-Kalpa - Eighty antah-kalpas make a maha-kalpa. Maha-kalpa ends by fire, water and wind.
The maximum number of Buddhas can appear in a kalpa is five. This kalpa is such
a kalpa. Our Gautama Buddha is the fourth, and the last Buddha in this kalpa,
Ariya Maitreya Buddha, will appear before the end of this kalpa. There are
kalpas where not even one Buddha appears at that time. But there is another type
of Buddha called pacceka Buddhas appear during that kalpa.
Many pacceka Buddhas may arise at a single time. They also achieve enlightenment
on their own, without the use of teachers or guides. Sammasambuddha, like
Gautama Buddha, appears only one at a single time. Never two parallel
Sammasambuddha appear at the same time. Gautama Buddha’s dispensation is five
thousand years. Previous Buddha’s dispensation was eighteen thousand years.
Previous Buddha, Kasapa Buddha, also lived eighteen thousand years because at
that time, human life span was eighteen thousand years. If anyone claims to be a
Buddha at this time, he is a fake one.
Pacceka Buddhas never set the wheel of law in motion, establishing Buddhism,
although they know exactly like Sammasambuddha, thus cannot teach the four Nobel
truth and Eight Nobel Path.They only teach about kamma and moral principles to
the people, and never tell anyone they are pacceka Buddhas.
Story behind the story
There are two versions of stories about the
pervious life of King Asoka, who ruled the entire subcontinent about three
hundred years after Buddha passed away. What was the Kama behind that king Asoka
could rule the entire subcontinent? After making a donation to a Sammasambuddha
or a pacceka Buddha, with full of faith, make a wish, that wish is guaranteed to
One version tells like this:
The Gift of Honey to a pacceka Buddha
The tale of Asoka’s act
of merit in a past life that resulted in his being reborn as a great king is
told in slightly different terms in the Mahāvaṃsa and the Aśokāvadāna. The Sri
Lankan chronicle’s version of the story recounts the monarch’s gift of honey:
Once in time past, there were three brothers, traders in honey; one used to sell
the honey, two would go to get it. Now a certain paccekabuddha was sick from a
wound; and another paccekabuddha, who, for his sake, wished for honey, came even
then to the city on his alms round. A maiden who was going for water to the
riverbank, saw him. When she found out that he was looking for honey, she
pointed with outstretched hand and said: “Yonder is a honey store, sir, go
there”. The paccekabuddha went there and the trader, with believing heart, gave
him a bowlful of honey, so that it ran over the edge. And as he saw the honey
filling the bowl and flowing over the edge and streaming down to the ground, he,
full of faith, made a wish: “May I, for this gift, come by undivided sovereignty
over Jambudīpa (subcontinent), and may my command reach forth a yojana
(approximately a few miles) upward into the air and a yojana downward under the
earth (to include the realm of the nāgas).” He then said to his brothers: “To a
man of such and such a kind I have made an offering of honey; agree thereto
since the honey is also yours.”… Wishing to share in his merit-making, his
brothers gave their sanction. Pacceka Buddha was on the way back to the
monastery. The young maid saw and she came out of her house. She asked Pacceka
Buddhas, "Did he donate honey to you, Sir?" Pacceka Buddha said, "Yes." Then she
asked, "What did he wished, Sir?" Pacceka Buddha said, "He wished to be a king
who rules the whole subcontinent.” The maid then said, "Is that what he wished?
Then, I wish to be his queen for this merit I have done – showing the way to his
store, Sir." The story then goes on to identify the main characters involved:
Asoka was the merchant who gave the honey, his brothers who approved the gift
became the novice Nigrodha (who inspired Asoka to become a Buddhist) and the Sri
Lankan king Devānampiya Tissa, and the maiden who pointed out the honey store
became Asoka’s chief queen Asaṃdhimittā.
Another version tells like
Asoka's Gift of Dirt to Gautama Buddha
The honey merchant
passes away and is reborn as a deva in one of the heavens. Then, after some time
there, he dies and is reborn as a young boy playing in the dust of the road in
Rājagṛha at the time of the Buddha. He offered a gift of dirt he was palying
with to Buddha. The Buddha asks Ananda to mix it with water and make a sort of
plaster out of it to use to repair some cracks in the monastery walls. The story
is told in the Aśokāvadāna: One morning, when the Blessed One was dwelling at
Kalandakanivāpa in the Veṇuvana near Rājagṛha, he put on his robes, took his
bowl and entered the city for alms…. Soon he came to the main road where two
little boys were playing at building houses in the dirt. One of them was the son
of a very prominent family and was named Jaya, while the other was the son of a
somewhat less prominent family and was named Vijaya. Both of them saw the Buddha
whose appearance is very pleasing, his body adorned with the thirty-two marks of
the Great Man. And young Jaya, thinking to himself "I will give Him some
ground,” threw a handful of dirt into the Buddha’s bowl. Vijaya approved of this
by making an añjali…. After presenting this offering to the Blessed One, Jaya
then proceeded to make the following resolute wish: “By this root of good merit,
I would become king, and, after placing the earth under a single umbrella of
sovereignty, I would pay homage to the Blessed Buddha." Then Buddha smiled. When
Ananda saw that Buddha smiled, he asked Buddha "Do you see anything? a Buddha
never smile for no reason." With Buddha’s miraculous seeing powers, a Buddha
sees everything what normal human do not see. Then Buddha said to Amanda "This
boy will be born about three hundred years later and become a great king. He
will spread Buddhism far and wide." The text then goes on to make clear the
identification between Jaya and King Aśoka and also between his friend Vijaya
and Aśoka’s subsequent prime minister Rādhagupta. In the one, the offering that
is made is of honey needed for a sick pratyekabuddha. In the other, the gift is
of dirt, an impure substance, unneeded and perhaps unwanted by the Buddha. In
the one, the giver is accompanied by a woman who is to become his queen and by
his two brothers. In the other, the boy is joined by his companion who is to
become his prime minister.
The gift of dirt attributes to ugliness
Aśoka is said to be physically ugly, to have rough
skin, and to be disliked by his father and the women of his harem.
Significantly, the text attributes this ugliness and harshness specifically to
the dubious nature of Aśoka’s act of merit in a past life — to his gift of dirt.
When Aśoka meets the Elder Upagupta and notices that the Elder’s skin is soft
and smooth while his own is coarse, rough, and unpleasant to the touch, Upagupta
does not mince words in explaining the karmic reasons for this: "That is because
the gift I gave to that peerless person (the Buddha) was very pure and pleasing;
I did not offer the Tathagata a gift of dirt like you!"
King Asoka and Buddhism. Edited by Anuradha Seneviratna
Someone asked Buddha, "What are the differences between human and animal?"
Buddha said "what makes human different from animal is human have shame and
fear, which animals do not have." What about those human who do not have
shame and fear?
What is shame in this instance?
Shame here is shameful of doing evil things.
What are the roots of
evil?This will be discussed in this web site later.
What is fear in
Fear in this instance means fearful of the effect
(resultant kama) of evil deeds.
Are those human who do not have
shame and fear same as animals?
They are not animals because they are
still experiencing human existences, but their behaviour is inhuman which will
lead to a state of deprivation after death.
Are men mad when they are
committing those grave misdeeds?
Buddha said men are mad. Why? (will
be discussed later in this web site.)
Intelligent animal - monkey
One full moon day in the month of Vadra (August-September), Buddha was
going for alms as usual in the morning with hundreds of monks following behind,
giving the chance to people to gain enormous good kama. People were lined up,
like today in Buddhist countries, to offer donations to Buddha. Sitting on a
tree, one monkey noticed and a wish had arisen in him that he wanted to donate
something to Buddha, like everybody else was donating. He looked around and saw
a beehive in one of the branchs of the tree. He then took a branch of a tree and
carefully took the beehive hanging on the edge of the branch and offered that
beehive with full of honey to Buddha. First, Buddha did not accept his donation.
The monkey was thinking something might be wrong there what I am offering to
Buddha because Buddha accept everybody else donation. Somehow, the monkey
figured it out that there were bees in the beehive. Buddhas never accept another
creature as donation. The monkey quickly took the beehive to some distance away
and got rid of the bees and then offered the beehive to Buddha. This time Buddha
accepted his offer. All other people were astonished to see how intelligent was
that monkey. Buddha said, "this monkey will be reborn in heaven after he die
because of the good kama he has acquired by donating to a Buddha." That full
moon day is called Madu Purnima, which means honey-full moon day, in
India and Bangladesh Buddhist communities. They still offer honey to Buddha and
monks on this full moon day, honouring the monkey.
Devadatta, the son of Suppabuddha, the maternal uncle of the
Buddha, was very jealous of Buddha since childhood. Although he also became a
monk after Buddha was enlightened, his ill will never diminished. He attempted
Buddha's life three times in vain. One day, Devadatta claimed his superiority
over Buddha to assume the leadership of the monk order by giving the reason that
Buddha was old and senile. He was not given much attention by the monks and
could only managed to take away a few hundred monks as his followers, dividing
the monk order.
King Bimbisara, a devoted follower of Buddha, was the chief patron of the
Buddhist monk order. Devadatta planned to eliminate King Bimbisara which would
mean the loss of royal patronage to the monk order. Devadatta managed to
persuade Ajatashatra, son of King Bimbisara, to kill his father and become king.
Devadatta employed sixteen archers to kill the Buddha. But the archers in turn
became the devotees of the Buddha.
Devadatta himself then tried to kill the Buddha by
hurling down a great rock from a peak of the mount Gijjhakuta when Buddha
was walking down the slopes. The Buddha, however, escaped because two peaks
appeared from the ground and arrested the advancement of the rolling rock.
However, a small debris hit one of Buddha's foot and a small amount of blood was
Devadatta then persuaded the royal elephant-keepers
to let loose a fierce elephant Nalagiri, also called Dhanapala, on the path of
the Buddha by making him drunk with toddy. Thus Nalagiri was let loose. The
ferocious and dangerous looking intoxicated elephant when walked on the streets
the people fled at his sight. Yet, the Buddha kept on walking in his usual
dignity and composure, though, Ananda tried to prevent and protect him. In the
meanwhile, a frightened woman running helter-skelter dropped her baby on the
feet of the Buddha. When the advancing animal was just about to trample the baby
the Buddha in his usual equipoise touched the animal’s forehead and stroked it
gently. Calmed by the Buddha’s patting the elephant bowed down before him on his
knees. Infect, Buddha's immeasurable compassion toward totally drunk Nalagiri
made him kneel down on Buddha's feet. The people, further, noticed that the
Buddha delivered a sermon on dhamma to the elephant, telling Nalagiri not to
drink, he will get a good life when he is reborn. Nalagiri always remembered
what Buddha said to him and never took any intoxicated drink after that day.
Buddha completely changed Nalagiri's way of life.
Some monks told Buddha that they will guard Buddha's monastery at night. Buddha
told that it is not necessary as nobody can take a Buddha's life. Soon after the
third attempt, Devadatta fell very sick and realised his misbehaviours. He was
on his way to the monastery to see Buddha to apologise and stopped for a while
to wash his face near a pond. While he lowered his body to fetch water, the
earth split and he was falling to hell. Buddha appeared there and told
Devadatta, "I unconditionally forgive you what you had done against me. But, one
thing I cannot do anything - you have divided monk order." Devadatta put his
hands together and apologised to Buddha and fell between the gap and his body
was never found. Then Buddha said, "Devadatta is now in
Avisi Naraka. He will be there many
kalpas and when his evil kama weakened no more operative, he will be reborn as a
human. Because he apologised Buddha and also has good kama he had done in his
previous births, he will become a Paccheka Buddha." Why he cannot achieve a
Beings Who commit these three Kama cannot achieve enlightenment as
Killing parents, dividing monk order (which Devadatta committed), and shedding
blood of a Buddha (which also Devadatta committed).
Buddha told in Jataka stories about Devadatta, since when he
started rivalry against Buddhisattva. Buddha met Devadatta many times in
Why King Bimbisara was killed by his son by
keeping him in a prison cell without food until he died?
Buddha told what
was King Bimbisara's bad kama from past existence that his life ended this way.
Nobody is above the law of kama
What was Buddha's own kama
from previous birth that Buddha had to encounter the elephant charged by
Buddha told in Jataka - it was the effect of bad kama
perpetrated in one of Buddha's previous births when he was as a reckless haughty
nobleman and had charged a Paccheka Buddha by an elephant. As the force of the
fruitions of the karma is powerful and ever-operative, He, too, was charged by
Buddha told twelve of Buddha's own kama that were still
operative and gave effect on Buddha. This will be discussed later.
To be continued...
Can Darwin's theory of "The Origin of Species" by means of "natural selection"
and "survival of the fittest" which explains the process of evolution help
convince Buddhist? Is it true as Darwin said that life exists in its present
form as a result of evolution? Is Evolution considered to be a scientific fact?
Charles Darwin simply brought something new to the old philosophy of ancient
Greek philosophers such as Anaximander who postulated the development of life
from non-life and the evolutionary descent of man from animal. According to
Darwin's observations all life is related and has descended from a common
ancestor: the birds and the bananas, the fishes and the flowers, the monkeys and
the donkeys -- all related. Darwin's theory preclude any chance of a currently
less intelligent species someday surpassing human levels of intelligence.
Are life of beings who are wandering through samsara life cycle and life
in plants the same? What is the difference? Life of beings are all conditioned
(effect of kamma), unlike life in plants. Can any society get it right
when they deny the true cause of the life - kamma? Denial of kamma
is wrong view (miccaditthi). Therefore, they got wrong?
Natural selection of prevailing kamma (kamma-nimitta) at the time of
death is the determining fact in which "plane" or "realm" a being will be
reborn. Random genetic mutations of an organism's genetic code (Darwin's Natural
selection) cannot change a being that will cross the line from one "plane" or
"realm" to another, for example, monkeys to human. Therefore, no evolution has
taken place. Beings can be reborn only in one "plane' or "realm" at a time
according to the kamma that has given effect to them at the time of death in
their previous lives. If a being's good kamma has given effect, he might
be reborn as a human or as a deva in heaven. If bad kamma has
given effect, he might be reborn as an animal or in hell.
With regard to Darwin's theory of "all life, including plants, descended from a
common ancestor and all are related", Buddha said, all beings, not plants, met
at some time in the past lives and were related to each other.
Why "Social Darwinism" was invoked to justify Western
imperialism, colonialism, militarism and scientific racism - white supremacy,
white domination, Anglo-Saxon domination?
The world has witnessed the devastation of ardent nationalism, authoritarianism
combined with Darwinism racist ideology, attempting to dominate the word, not
very long ago. Is it not the manifestation of kamma "what we do, what we get?"
Darwinian evolution is nothing more than a racist philosophy, convincing white
people the illusion of biological superiority. The premise was white people
started evolving much earlier and faster rates than black people. That makes
white people superior and black more like their ape-like ancestors.
Hebert Spenser, an English philosopher, biologist and sociologist, argues in line with Darwin, that inferior individuals should be allowed to "die out" for
the greater good and that helps to purify the genetic pool of humanity. Both Darwin and Spencer also believed that human evolution will contribute the
replacement of inferior ones with the superior.
Every Buddha's message is how to attain peace and happiness - true happiness - nibbana, nothing else. This word nibbana is only known to men and devas during the time of a Buddha's dispensation,
otherwise nobody knew about nibbana. Buddha told there is nibbana and when you walk through the path (eight noble path), you will come face to face with nibbana.
The key to attain nibbana is to purify one's mind from defilement (thana) - greed, desire, craving, attachment, lust. That means there is no place for impurity - lobha (greed, desire, craving,
attachment, lust), dosa (anger, hatred, ill-will, aversion), moha (ignorance) - which is going on in everyday worldly affairs, including politics. A Buddha's teachings cannot be used other than attaining nibbana,
and there is no exception for politics. There is no such loophole in Buddha's teachings that anybody can apply to achieve other than nibbana. Therefore, this teaching is
unopposed by any kind of political system as it has nothing whatsoever to do with politics. Politicians, especially dictators, are only worried other 'ism' which will cause uprising against
them or create unrest in their country.
Monks are not allowed to work for money, and they can't even touch money, gold, etc. because attachment to these will increase defilements lobha greed, which is in contrast with basic
principles of Buddhism, purify one's mind. Theravada Monks can only survive in a Buddhist environment, unlike Mahayana monks, totally dependent on Buddhist faith (saddha). They observe vinnaya
(disciplines), learn, practice and teach the doctrine to the Buddhist community, thereby doing noble work for the devotees and also for their own future to end the cycle of birth in Samsara.
Devotees also earn enormous good kamma, which will also result in to achieve nibbana, by supporting the monks (danna, generosity), by listening and practicing the dhamma. It works for both, monk community
and Buddhist devotees very well and survival of Buddhism depends on both. When monks do not observe disciplines, devotees faith will diminish. When devotees are persecuted or oppressed or
economically unable to support, monks cannot survive. In both cases Buddhism can fade away. It is like a huge tree standing in the middle of a small island. The stability of tree's roots depends
on the soil of the island, while the tree protects the island's soil being washed away by heavy rain. They depend on each other.
Monks must support righteousness, express the truth and teach against injustices, but only by preaching, non-violent way, changing them to right view. How can they justify shouting
political slogans on the streets in a manner not suitable for monks, holding bamboo sticks in their hands? I do not think there is any vinnaya that will allow them to do that. Peaceful
marching on the street is exercising freedom of expression, which is not prohibited, but not showing a sign of violence by holding a bamboo stick, which is an inappropriate behaviour for a monk.
Cause or Condition
‘Paccaya’ means ‘cause or condition’. It is something on which something else, the so-called ‘conditioned-thing’ (paccayuppanna),
is dependent, and without which the latter cannot be. Paccaya is the cause of the conditioned thing. Paccayuppanna is the effect or result of the cause.
In conditioning its paccayuppanna (effect or result), the paccaya (cause or condition) acts in two supportive ways:
1 it causes the effect which has not arisen to arise, and
2 it strengthens the effect which has already arisen.
There are two methods of conditioning:
1 Paticcasamuppàda-method – the Law of Dependent Origination,
2 Patthàna-method – the Law of Causal Relations.
The first method describes the cause and the effect without
mentioning how the cause conditions the effect to arise.
However, Paticcasamuppàda is a very important doctrine as it describes
eleven causal relations which explain the conditionality and
dependent nature of uninterrupted flux of manifold physical
and mental phenomena of existence.
In other words it explains how each individual is involved in the Wheel of Existence
undergoing the rounds of rebirth and misery in the long samsàra.
Patthàna method not only describes the cause and the effect but
also explains how the cause conditions the effect to arise. It is
wonderful to learn that there are 24 modes of conditionality
which correlates all the physical and psychical phenomena by
cause and effect with specific illustrations occurring in real life.
1 Paticcasamuppàda Method
The Paticcasamuppàda method of correlating the cause and the
effect is generally known as the Law of Dependent Origination.
The brief essential statement of the law runs like this:
1 Avijjà-paccayà sankhàrà –
Dependent on ignorance arise the rebirth-producing
volition or kamma formations.
2 Sankhàra-paccayà vinnànam –
Dependent on kamma formations (in past life) arises
rebirth consciousness (in the present life).
3 Vinnàna-paccayà nàma-rupam –
Dependent on rebirth consciousness arise the mental
and physical phenomena.
4 Nàma-rupa-paccayà salàyatanam
- Dependent on the mental and physical phenomena
arise the six (sense) bases.
5 Salàyatana-paccayà phasso –
Dependent on the six (sense) bases arise contact
(between sense base, sense object and consciousness).
6 Phassa-paccayà vedanà –
Dependent on contact arises feeling.
7 Vedanà-paccayà tanhà –
Dependent on feeling arises craving.
8 Tanhà-paccayà upàdànam
– Dependent on craving arises
9 Upàdàna-paccayà bhavo
– Dependent on grasping arises
the rebirth-producing kamma (kamma-bhava) and the
10 Bhava-paccayà jàti
– Dependent on the rebirth-producing
kamma (in the present life) arises rebirth (in the future
11 Jàti-paccayà jarà-maranam-soka-parideva-dukkha-domanassa,
- Dependent on rebirth arise old
age, death, worry, lamentation, pain, grief and despair.
Thus arises the whole mass of suffering again in the future.
-Buddha Abhidhamma (Dr. Mehm Tin Mon)